Comprehensive Bibliography

This is the official bibliography for LAWCHA’s Teaching and Public Sector Unionism initiative. A full listing of our resources can be found on the Teaching Resources page. For an overview of teachers’ unions, see our featured article, “A Century of Teacher Organizing: What Can We Learn?


Some titles appear in more than one category. This bibliography is intended to be comprehensive. If you see a title that is missing or that published after 2014, please email the citation to [email protected]. Originally compiled by Hannah Ontiveros, Duke University, 2015.

General

Cameron, Don. The Inside Story of the Teacher Revolution in America. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Education, 2005.

Cheng, Charles W. "Community Representation in Teacher Collective Bargaining: Problems and Prospects." Harvard Educational Review 46, no. 2 (1976): 153-174

Cooper, Bruce S. and John Sureau. "Teacher Unions and the Politics of Fear in Labor Relations." Educational Policy 22, no. 1 (2008): 86-105.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth. "Business Propaganda in the Schools: Labor’s Struggle against the Americans for the Competitive Enterprise System." History of Education Quarterly 40, no. 3 (2000): 255.

Goldstein, Dana. The Teacher Wars: A History of America’s Most Embattled Profession. New York: Doubleday, 2014.

Graebner, William. "Retirement in Education: The Economic and Social Functions of the Teachers’ Pension." History of Education Quarterly 18, no. 4 (1978): 397-417.

Jessup, Dorothy K. "Teacher Unionization: A Reassessment of Rank and File Motivations." Sociology of Education 51.1,  (1978): 45-55.

Langevin, Mark S. "Between Fragmentation and Globalization." Labor Studies Journal 35, no. 3 (2010): 364-385.

Lazarson, Marvin. "If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century." History of Education Quarterly 24, no. 2 (1984): 165-179.

Perlstein, Daniel. Justice, Justice: School Politics and the Eclipse of Liberalism. New York: P. Lang, 2004.

Powell, Arthur G. "The Culture and Politics of American Teachers." History of Education Quarterly 18, no. 2 (1978): 187-194.

Rury, John L., ed. Urban Education in the United States: A Historical Reader. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005.

Saltzman, Gregory M. "Bargaining Laws as a Cause and Consequence of the Growth of Teacher Unionism." Industrial & Labor Relations Review 38, no. 3 (1985): 335-351.

Shaffer, Robert. "Public Employee Unionism: A Neglected Social Movement of the 1960s." History Teacher 44, no. 4 (2011): 489-508.

Strom, D. "Teacher Unionism: An Assessment." Education & Urban Society 11, no. 2 (1979): 152.

Thornton, Robert J. "U.S. Teachers’ Organizations and the Salary Issue: 1900-1960." Research in Economic History,  (1982): 127-143.

Toloudis, Nicholas. Teaching Marianne and Uncle Sam: Public Education, State Centralization, and Teacher Unionism in France and the United States. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.

Urban, Wayne J. Why Teachers Organized. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1982.

Urban, Wayne J. "New Directions in the Historical Study of Teacher Unionism." Historical Studies in Education 2, no. 1 (1990): 1-15.

Wagenaar, Theodore C. "Activist Professionals: The Case of Teachers." Social Science Quarterly (Southwestern Social Sciences Association) 55, no. 2 (1974): 372-379.

Weiner, Lois. "When "Teachers Want What Children Need"." Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine 65, no. 2 (2013): 47-57.

AFT

Brier, Stephen. "The Ideological and Organizational Origins of the United Federation of Teachers’ Opposition to the Community Control Movement in the New York City Public Schools, 1960-1968." Labour / Le Travail 73,  (2014): 179-193.

Cain, Timothy Reese. "For Education and Employment: The American Federation of Teachers and Academic Freedom, 1926-1941." Perspectives on the History of Higher Education 26,  (2007): 67-102.

Eaton, William Edward. The American Federation of Teachers, 1916-1961: A History of the Movement. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975.

Koppich, Julia E. "A Tale of Two Approaches–the AFT, the NEA, and NCLB." Peabody Journal of Education 80, no. 2 (2005): 137-155.

Martin, Don T. "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues and Trends between the Two Great World Wars." American Educational History Journal 28,  (2001): 1-6.

Murphy, Marjorie. Blackboard Unions: The AFT and the NEA, 1900-1980. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Newman, Joseph Whitworth. "A History of the Atlanta Public School Teachers’ Association, Local 89 of the American Federation of Teachers, 1919-1956." PhD diss., Georgia State University, 1978.

Newman, Joseph W. and Wayne J. Urban. "Communists in the American Federation of Teachers: A Too Often Told Story." History of Education Review 14, no. 2 (1985): 15-24.

O’Connor, Paula. "Grade-School Teachers Become Labor Leaders: Margaret Haley, Florence Rood, and Mary Barker of the Aft." Labor’s Heritage 7, no. 2 (1995): 4-17.

Powell, Arthur G. "The American Federation of Teachers, 1916-1961: A History of the Movement." History of Education Quarterly 18, no. 2 (1978): 187-194.

Selden, David.The Teacher Rebellion. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1985.

NEA

Cain, Timothy Reese. "The NEA’s Early Conflict Over Educational Freedom." American Educational History Journal 36, no. 1/2 (2009): 361-375.

Champlin, Ardath I. "Arthur L. Marsh and the Washington Education Association, 1921-40." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 60, no. 3 (1969): 127-134.

Dewing, Rolland. "The American Federation of Teachers and Desegregation." Journal of Negro Education 42, no. 1 (1973): 79-92. Koppich, Julia E. "A Tale of Two Approaches–the AFT, the NEA, and NCLB." Peabody Journal of Education 80, no. 2 (2005): 137-155.

Murphy, Marjorie. Blackboard Unions: The AFT and the NEA, 1900-1980. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Reed, Eric. "Bridging the Gap between Institutional Histories and Individual Experiences: A Look at the ‘NEA Bulletin,’ 1913-1915." American Educational History Journal 29,  (2002): 10-16.

Sawyer, R. McLaran. "The National Educational Association and Negro Education, 1865-1884." Journal of Negro Education,  (1970): 341-345.

Stephens, David. "President Carter, the Congress, and NEA: Creating the Department of Education." Political Science Quarterly 98, no. 4 (1983): 641.

Urban, Wayne J. "Courting the Woman Teacher: The National Education Association, 1917–1970." History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (2001): 139.

Urban, Wayne. Gender, Race and the National Education Association: Professionalism and its Limitations. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2000.

Urban, Wayne J. "The Making of a Teachers’ Union: The National Education Association, USA, 1957-1973." Historical Studies in Education 5, no. 1 (1993): 33-53.

Biographies

Ambrose, Edith Rosepha. "Sarah Towles Reed: Teacher and Activist." Louisiana History 37, no. 1 (1996): 31-60.

Champlin, Ardath I. "Arthur L. Marsh and the Washington Education Association, 1921-40." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 60, no. 3 (1969): 127-134.

DeMatteo, Arthur. "The "Indomitable" Eppie Du Pont: Kentucky’s Crusader for Social Justice." New England Journal of History 62, no. 2 (2006): 1-18.

Engelbrecht, Lester E. "Lillian Herstein: Teacher and Activist." Labor’s Heritage 1, no. 2 (1989): 66-75.

Kahlenberg, Richard D.Tough Liberal: Albert Shanker and the Battles Over Schools, Unions, Race, and Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Karpinski, Carol F. "“We Have a Long Way to Go”: H. Councill Trenholm, Educational Associations, and Equity." Paedagogica Historica 46, no. 1/2 (2010): 51-67.

Nolan, Janet. "A Patrick Henry in the Classroom: Margaret Haley and the Chicago Teachers’ Federation." Eire-Ireland 30, no. 3 (1995): 104-117.

O’Connor, Paula. "Grade-School Teachers Become Labor Leaders: Margaret Haley, Florence Rood, and Mary Barker of the AFT." Labor’s Heritage 7, no. 2 (1995): 4-17. Rousmaniere, Kate. "Being Margaret Haley, Chicago, 1903." Paedagogica Historica 39, no. 1/2 (2003): 5.

Weiner, Lois. "Teachers, Unions, and School Reform: Examining Margaret Haley’s Vision." Educational Foundations 10, no. 3 (1996): 85-96.

Strikes

Alter, Tom. ""It Felt Like Community": Social Movement Unionism and the Chicago Teachers Union Strike of 2012." Labor: Studies In Working Class History of the Americas 10, no. 3 (2013): 11-25.

Cortinovis, Irene E. "Documenting an Event with Manuscripts and Oral History: The St. Louis Teachers’ Strike, 1973." The Oral History Review 2,  (1974): 59-63.

Donovan, John. "A Tale of Two Strikes: The Formation of United Teachers-Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Teacher Strikes of 1970 and 1989." Southern California Quarterly 81, no. 3 (1999): 377-396.

Golin, Steve. The Newark Teacher Strikes: Hopes on the Line. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

Hellwig, Jason F. "Big Labor in a Small Town: The Hortonville Teachers’ Strike." Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin’s Historical Review 19, no. 2 (2003): 10.

Jacoby, Daniel F, ; Nitta, Keith. "The Bellevue Teachers Strike and Its Implications for the Future of Postindustrial Reform Unionism." Educational Policy 26, no. 4 (2012): 533-563.

Macke, Susan Martin. "Teachers Unite: The 1977 Strike in Cincinnati." Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society 22,  (1995): 29-41.

MacLeod, Roderick and Mary Anne Poutanen. "Little Fists for Social Justice: Anti-Semitism, Community, and Montréal’s Aberdeen School Strike, 1913." Labour / Le Travail 70,  (2012): 61-99.

Podair, Jerald E.The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, Whites, and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

Roy, Patricia E. "The Maillardville, B.C. School Strike: Archbishop W.M. Duke, Catholic Schools, and the British Columbia Election of 1952." Historical Studies 80,  (2014): 63-88.

Rury, John L. and Frank A. Cassell, eds.Seeds of Crisis: Public Schooling in Milwaukee since 1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

Shelton, Jon. "Against the Public: The Pittsburgh Teachers Strike of 1975-1976 and the Crisis of the Labor-Liberal Coalition. (Cover Story)." Labor: Studies In Working Class History of the Americas 10, no. 2 (2013): 55-75.

Race and Teachers’ Unions

Alvarez, René Luis. "’There’s No Such Thing as an Unqualified Teacher’: Unionization and Integration in the Philadelphia Public Schools." Historian 65, no. 4 (2003): 837.

Burkholder, Zoë. "’Education for Citizenship in a Bi-Racial Civilization’: Black Teachers and the Social Construction of Race, 1929—1954." Journal of Social History 46, no. 2 (2012): 335-363.

Dewing, Rolland. "The American Federation of Teachers and Desegregation." Journal of Negro Education 42, no. 1 (1973): 79-92.

Fairclough, Adam. "’Being in the Field of Education and Also Being a Negro…Seems…Tragic’: Black Teachers in the Jim Crow South." The Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 65-91.

Johnson, Lauri. "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950." Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (2004): 223-240.

Kahlenberg, Richard D.Tough Liberal: Albert Shanker and the Battles Over Schools, Unions, Race, and Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Mauney, Margaret Ann. "Consciousness and Activism of Atlanta Teachers: Unionization and Desegregation, 1960-1990." PhD diss., Emory University, 1998.

Perlstein, Daniel. Justice, Justice: School Politics and the Eclipse of Liberalism. New York: P. Lang, 2004. Perlstein, Daniel. "The Dead End of Despair: Bayard Rustin, the 1968 New York School Crisis, and the Struggle for Racial Justice." Afro-Americans in New York Life & History 31, no. 2 (2007): 89-120.

Perrillo, Jonna. Uncivil Rights: Teachers, Unions, and Race in the Battle for School Equity. Chicago ;London: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Podair, Jerald E.The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, Whites, and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

Sawyer, R. McLaran. "The National Educational Association and Negro Education, 1865-1884." Journal of Negro Education,  (1970): 341-345.

Taylor, Clarence.Reds at the Blackboard: Communism, Civil Rights, and the New York City Teachers Union. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Urban, Wayne. Gender, Race and the National Education Association: Professionalism and its Limitations. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2000.

Wennersten, John R. "The Black School Teacher in Maryland – 1930’s." Negro History Bulletin 38, no. 3 (1975): 370-373.

Gender and Teachers’ Unions

Coulter, Rebecca Priegert. "Looking after Ourselves": Women Elementary Teachers and Their Federation." Oral History Forum 24,  (2004): 67-85.

Coulter, Rebecca Priegert. "Organizing in Contradiction: Women Teachers, Unionization, and the Politics of Feminized Professionalism." InHistory is Hers: Women Educators in Twentieth Century Ontario, edited by Rebecca Priegert Coulter and Helen Harper, pp. 161-189. Calgary: Detselig, 2005.

Coulter, Rebecca Priegert. " ‘Girls Just Want to Have Fun’: Women Teachers and the Pleasures of the Profession." InHistory is Hers: Women Educators in Twentieth Century Ontario, edited by Rebecca Priegert Coulter and Helen Harper, pp. 211-229. Calgary: Detselig, 2005.

Donahue, David M. "Rhode Island’s Last Holdout: Tenure and Married Women Teachers at the Brink of the Women’s Movement." History of Education Quarterly 42, no. 1 (2002): 50-74.

Ensslen, Christine and June Corman. "Establishing Pathways for Woman in Education in Saskatchewan: Never-Married Women Career Teachers." Historical Studies in Education 25, no. 2 (2013): 21-43.

Gitlin, Andrew. "Gender and Professionalization: An Institutional Analysis of Teacher Education and Unionism At the Turn of the Twentieth Century." Teachers College Record 97, no. 4 (1996): 588-624.

Johnson, Lauri. "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950." Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (2004): 223-240.

Kean, Hilda; Oram, Alison. "’Men Must Be Educated and Women Must Do It’: The National Federation (Later Union) of Women Teachers and Contemporary Feminism 1910-30." Gender and Education 2, no. 2 (1990): 147-167.

Leroux, Karen. ""Lady Teachers" and the Genteel Roots of Teacher Organization in Gilded Age Cities." History of Education Quarterly 46, no. 2 (2006): 164-191.

Murphey, Kathleen. "Gender Barriers to Forming a Teachers Union in Boston." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 21, no. 2 (1993): 60-86.

Quantz, Richard A. "The Complex Visions of Female Teachers and the Failure of Unionization in the 1930s: An Oral History." History of Education Quarterly 25, no. 4 (1985): 439-458.

Stern, Marjorie. "An Insider’s View of the Teachers Union and Women’s Rights." Urban Review 6, no. 5/6 (1973): 46-49.

Thomas, William B. and Kevin J. Moran. "Women Teacher Militancy in the Workplace, 1910-1922." Paedagogica Historica 27, no. 1 (1991): 35-53.

Urban, Wayne J. "Courting the Woman Teacher: The National Education Association, 1917–1970." History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (2001): 139.

Urban, Wayne. Gender, Race and the National Education Association: Professionalism and its Limitations. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2000.

Titles by Historical Period

Nineteenth Century

Foner, Philip S. "An Appeal to Teachers, 1877." Science & Society 41, no. 1 (1977): 102-105.

Leroux, Karen. ""Lady Teachers" and the Genteel Roots of Teacher Organization in Gilded Age Cities." History of Education Quarterly 46, no. 2 (2006): 164-191.

Sawyer, R. McLaran. "The National Educational Association and Negro Education, 1865-1884." Journal of Negro Education,  (1970): 341-345.

Progressive Era

Doherty, Robert E. "Tempest on the Hudson: The Struggle for "Equal Pay for Equal Work" in the New York City Public Schools, 1907-1911." History of Education Quarterly 19, no. 4 (1979): 413-434.

Ewen, Geoffrey. "Montreal Catholic School Teachers, International Unions, and Archbishop Bruchesi: The Association De Bien-Etre Des Instituteurs Et Institutrices De Montreal, 1919-20." Historical Studies in Education 12, no. 1 (2000): 54-72.

Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth. "The Politics of Vocationalism: Coalitions and Industrial Education in the Progressive Era." Historian 46, no. 1 (1983): 39-55.

Issel, William H. "Teachers and Educational Reform During the Progressive Era: A Case Study of the Pittsburgh Teachers Association." History of Education Quarterly 7, no. 2 (1967): 220-233.

Kean, Hilda; Oram, Alison. ""Men Must Be Educated and Women Must Do It": The National Federation (Later Union) of Women Teachers and Contemporary Feminism 1910-30." Gender and Education 2, no. 2 (1990): 147-167.

Gitlin, Andrew. "Gender and Professionalization: An Institutional Analysis of Teacher Education and Unionism At the Turn of the Twentieth Century." Teachers College Record 97, no. 4 (1996): 588-624.

Leidenberger, Georg. ""The Public Is the Labor Union": Working-Class Progressivism in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago." Labor History 36, no. 2 (1995): 187-210.

MacLeod, Roderick and Mary Anne Poutanen. "Little Fists for Social Justice: Anti-Semitism, Community, and Montréal’s Aberdeen School Strike, 1913." Labour / Le Travail 70,  (2012): 61-99.

Murphy, Marjorie. "Taxation and Social Conflict: Teacher Unionism and Public School Finance in Chicago, 1898-1934." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 74, no. 4 (1981): 242-260.

Reed, Eric. "Bridging the Gap between Institutional Histories and Individual Experiences: A Look at the ‘NEA Bulletin,’ 1913-1915." American Educational History Journal 29,  (2002): 10-16.

Rousmaniere, Kate. "Teachers’ Work and the Social Relations of School Space in Early-Twentieth-Century North American Urban Schools." Historical Studies in Education 8, no. 1 (1996): 42-64. Rousmaniere, Kate. "Being Margaret Haley, Chicago, 1903." Paedagogica Historica 39, no. 1/2 (2003): 5.

Thomas, William B. and Kevin J. Moran. "Women Teacher Militancy in the Workplace, 1910-1922." Paedagogica Historica 27, no. 1 (1991): 35-53.

Urban, Wayne. "Organized Teachers and Educational Reform During the Progressive Era: 1890-1920." History of Education Quarterly 16, no. 1 (1976): 35-52.

1920s and 1930s

Burbank, Lyman B. "Chicago Public Schools and the Depression Years of 1928-1937." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1908-1984) 64, no. 4 (1971): 365-381.

Cain, Timothy Reese. "For Education and Employment: The American Federation of Teachers and Academic Freedom, 1926-1941." Perspectives on the History of Higher Education 26,  (2007): 67-102.

Champlin, Ardath I. "Arthur L. Marsh and the Washington Education Association, 1921-40." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 60, no. 3 (1969): 127-134.

Feffer, Andrew. "The Presence of Democracy: Deweyan Exceptionalism and Communist Teachers in the 1930s." Journal of the History of Ideas 66, no. 1 (2005): 79-97.

Johnson, Lauri. "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950." Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (2004): 223-240.

Martin, Don T. "Origins of the American Federation of Teachers: Issues and Trends between the Two Great World Wars." American Educational History Journal 28,  (2001): 1-6.

Quantz, Richard A. "The Complex Visions of Female Teachers and the Failure of Unionization in the 1930s: An Oral History." History of Education Quarterly 25, no. 4 (1985): 439-458.

Smaller, Harry and Andrew Spaull. "The Responses of Canadian Teachers’ Unions to the Effects of the 1930s Depression with Emphasis on Ontario." History of Education Review 23, no. 2 (1994): 55-72.

Wennersten, John R. "The Black School Teacher in Maryland – 1930’s." Negro History Bulletin 38, no. 3 (1975): 370-373.

War and Postwar: 1940s-1960s

Brier, Stephen. "The Ideological and Organizational Origins of the United Federation of Teachers’ Opposition to the Community Control Movement in the New York City Public Schools, 1960-1968." Labour / Le Travail 73,  (2014): 179-193.

Foster, Stuart. "Educators Confront the Red Scare from 1945 to 1955." Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society 23,  (1996): 70-75.

Johnson, Lauri. "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950." Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (2004): 223-240.

Karpinski, Carol F. "`A Visible Company of Professionals’: The National Education Association, Activists, and the Civil Rights Movement." PhD diss., Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 2003.

Makowsky, Michael Richard. "The Origins and Development of Teacher Unions in Florida, 1945 to 1975: A Study in Organizational Politics." PhD diss., The Florida State University, 1999.

Paddison, Joshua. "Summers of Worry, Summers of Defiance: San Franciscans for Academic Freedom and Education and the Bay Area Opposition to HUAC, 1959-1960." California History 78, no. 3 (1999): 188-201.

Perlstein, Daniel. "The Dead End of Despair: Bayard Rustin, the 1968 New York School Crisis, and the Struggle for Racial Justice." Afro-Americans in New York Life & History 31, no. 2 (2007): 89-120.

Roy, Patricia E. "The Maillardville, B.C. School Strike: Archbishop W.M. Duke, Catholic Schools, and the British Columbia Election of 1952." Historical Studies 80,  (2014): 63-88.

Shaffer, Robert. "Multicultural Education in New York City During World War II." New York History 77, no. 3 (1996): 301-332.

Shaffer, Robert. "Public Employee Unionism: A Neglected Social Movement of the 1960s." History Teacher 44, no. 4 (2011): 489-508.

Urban, Wayne J. "The Making of a Teachers’ Union: The National Education Association, USA, 1957-1973." Historical Studies in Education 5, no. 1 (1993): 33-53.

Recent: 1970s-Present

Cortinovis, Irene E. "Documenting an Event with Manuscripts and Oral History: The St. Louis Teachers’ Strike, 1973." The Oral History Review 2,  (1974): 59-63.

Cowen, Joshua M. and Jacob Fowles. "Same Contract, Different Day? An Analysis of Teacher Bargaining Agreements in Louisville since 1979." Teachers College Record 115,  (2013): 1-30.

Donovan, John. "A Tale of Two Strikes: The Formation of United Teachers-Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Teacher Strikes of 1970 and 1989." Southern California Quarterly 81, no. 3 (1999): 377-396.

Kink, Steve. Class Wars: The Story of the Washington Education Association 1965-2001, Edited by John Cahill. Federal Way, WA: Washington Education Association, 2004.

Macke, Susan Martin. "Teachers Unite: The 1977 Strike in Cincinnati." Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society 22,  (1995): 29-41.

Mauney, Margaret Ann. "Consciousness and Activism of Atlanta Teachers: Unionization and Desegregation, 1960-1990." PhD diss., Emory University, 1998.

Shelton, Jon. "Against the Public: The Pittsburgh Teachers Strike of 1975-1976 and the Crisis of the Labor-Liberal Coalition. (Cover Story)." Labor: Studies In Working Class History of the Americas 10, no. 2 (2013): 55-75.

Twentieth Century

Burkholder, Zoë. ""Education for Citizenship in a Bi-Racial Civilization" Black Teachers and the Social Construction of Race, 1929—1954." Journal of Social History 46, no. 2 (2012): 335-363.

Burkholder, Zoë. ""Education for Citizenship in a Bi-Racial Civilization" Black Teachers and the Social Construction of Race, 1929—1954." Journal of Social History 46, no. 2 (2012): 335-363.

Eaton, William Edward. The American Federation of Teachers, 1916-1961: A History of the Movement. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975.

Lazarson, Marvin. "If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century." History of Education Quarterly 24, no. 2 (1984): 165-179.

Lyons, John F.Teachers and Reform: Chicago Public Education, 1929-1970. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Middleton, Ernest J. "The Louisiana Education Association, 1901-1970." Journal of Negro Education 47, no. 4 (1978): 363-378.

Mirel, Jeffrey.The Rise and Fall of an Urban School System: Detroit, 1907-81. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1999.

Morgan, Michelle. "Americanizing the Teachers: Identity, Citizenship, and the Teaching Corps in Hawai‘I, 1900–1941." The Western Historical Quarterly 45, no. 2 (2014): 147-167.

Murphy, Marjorie. Blackboard Unions: The AFT and the NEA, 1900-1980. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.

Newman, Joseph Whitworth. "A History of the Atlanta Public School Teachers’ Association, Local 89 of the American Federation of Teachers, 1919-1956." PhD diss., Georgia State University, 1978.

Rury, John L. and Frank A. Cassell, eds.Seeds of Crisis: Public Schooling in Milwaukee since 1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

Thornton, Robert J. "U.S. Teachers’ Organizations and the Salary Issue: 1900-1960." Research in Economic History,  (1982): 127-143.

Urban, Wayne J. "Courting the Woman Teacher: The National Education Association, 1917–1970." History of Education Quarterly 41, no. 2 (2001): 139.

Regional Studies (Categorized by State)

California

Donovan, John. "A Tale of Two Strikes: The Formation of United Teachers-Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Teacher Strikes of 1970 and 1989." Southern California Quarterly 81, no. 3 (1999): 377-396. Paddison, Joshua. "Summers of Worry, Summers of Defiance: San Franciscans for Academic Freedom and Education and the Bay Area Opposition to HUAC, 1959-1960." California History 78, no. 3 (1999): 188-201.

Georgia

Mauney, Margaret Ann. "Consciousness and Activism of Atlanta Teachers: Unionization and Desegregation, 1960-1990." PhD diss., Emory University, 1998.

Newman, Joseph W. "A History of the Atlanta Public School Teachers’ Association, Local 89 of the American Federation of Teachers, 1919-1956." PhD diss., Georgia State University, 1978.

Hawaii

Morgan, Michelle. "Americanizing the Teachers: Identity, Citizenship, and the Teaching Corps in Hawai‘i, 1900–1941." The Western Historical Quarterly 45, no. 2 (2014): 147-167.

Illinois

Burbank, Lyman B. "Chicago Public Schools and the Depression Years of 1928-1937." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1908-1984) 64, no. 4 (1971): 365-381.

Leidenberger, Georg. ""The Public Is the Labor Union": Working-Class Progressivism in Turn-of-the-Century Chicago." Labor History 36, no. 2 (1995): 187-210.

Lyons, John F.Teachers and Reform: Chicago Public Education, 1929-1970. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2008.

Murphy, Marjorie. "Taxation and Social Conflict: Teacher Unionism and Public School Finance in Chicago, 1898-1934." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 74, no. 4 (1981): 242-260.

Nolan, Janet. "A Patrick Henry in the Classroom: Margaret Haley and the Chicago Teachers’ Federation." Eire-Ireland 30, no. 3 (1995): 104-117.

Smith, Joan K. "Unity and Diversity in Union Politics: Mayor Cermak and the Chicago Teachers." Vitae Scholasticae 4, no. 1/2 (1985): 141-146.

Florida

Makowsky, Michael Richard. "The Origins and Development of Teacher Unions in Florida, 1945 to 1975: A Study in Organizational Politics." PhD diss., The Florida State University, 1999.

Kentucky

Cowen, Joshua M. and Jacob Fowles. "Same Contract, Different Day? An Analysis of Teacher Bargaining Agreements in Louisville since 1979." Teachers College Record 115,  (2013): 1-30.

Louisiana

Middleton, Ernest J. "The Louisiana Education Association, 1901-1970." Journal of Negro Education 47, no. 4 (1978): 363-378.

Maryland

Wennersten, John R. "The Black School Teacher in Maryland – 1930’s." Negro History Bulletin 38, no. 3 (1975): 370-373.

Massachusetts

Murphey, Kathleen. "Gender Barriers to Forming a Teachers Union in Boston." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 21, no. 2 (1993): 60-86.

Michigan

Male, George. "A Century of Efforts to Improve the Salaries of Teachers in Michigan." History of Education Journal 3, no. 2 (1952): 52-60.

Missouri

Ehrlich, Walter. "Birth Pangs of a Teachers Union: The St. Louis Story. Part 1." Missouri Historical Review 79, no. 1 (1984): 24-42.

Ehrlich, Walter. "Birth Pangs of a Teachers Union: The St. Louis Story. Part 2." Missouri Historical Review 79, no. 2 (1985): 209-228.

New Jersey

Golin, Steve. The Newark Teacher Strikes: Hopes on the Line. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

New York

Brier, Stephen. "The Ideological and Organizational Origins of the United Federation of Teachers’ Opposition to the Community Control Movement in the New York City Public Schools, 1960-1968." Labour / Le Travail 73,  (2014): 179-193.

Cole, Stephan.The Unionization of Teachers: A Case Study of the UFT. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1969.

Doherty, Robert E. "Tempest on the Hudson: The Struggle for "Equal Pay for Equal Work" in the New York City Public Schools, 1907-1911." History of Education Quarterly 19, no. 4 (1979): 413-434.

Gaffney, Dennis.Teachers United: The Rise of New York State United Teachers. State University of New York Press, 2007.

Jacoby, Daniel F and Nitta, Keith. "The Bellevue Teachers Strike and Its Implications for the Future of Postindustrial Reform Unionism." Educational Policy 26, no. 4 (2012): 533-563.

Johnson, Lauri. "A Generation of Women Activists: African American Female Educators in Harlem, 1930-1950." Journal of African American History 89, no. 3 (2004): 223-240.

Perlstein, Daniel. "The Dead End of Despair: Bayard Rustin, the 1968 New York School Crisis, and the Struggle for Racial Justice." Afro-Americans in New York Life & History 31, no. 2 (2007): 89-120.

Podair, Jerald E.The Strike That Changed New York: Blacks, Whites, and the Ocean Hill-Brownsville Crisis. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.

Selden, David.The Teacher Rebellion. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1985.

Shaffer, Robert. "Multicultural Education in New York City During World War II." New York History 77, no. 3 (1996): 301-332.

Taylor, Clarence.Reds at the Blackboard: Communism, Civil Rights, and the New York City Teachers Union. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011.

Ohio

Macke, Susan Martin. "Teachers Unite: The 1977 Strike in Cincinnati." Journal of the Midwest History of Education Society 22,  (1995): 29-41.

Pennsylvania

Alvarez, René Luis. ""There’s No Such Thing as an Unqualified Teacher": Unionization and Integration in the Philadelphia Public Schools." Historian 65, no. 4 (2003): 837.

Issel, William H. "Teachers and Educational Reform During the Progressive Era: A Case Study of the Pittsburgh Teachers Association." History of Education Quarterly 7, no. 2 (1967): 220-233.

Shelton, Jon. "Against the Public: The Pittsburgh Teachers Strike of 1975-1976 and the Crisis of the Labor-Liberal Coalition. (Cover Story)." Labor: Studies In Working Class History of the Americas 10, no. 2 (2013): 55-75.

Rhode

Island Donahue, David M. "Rhode Island’s Last Holdout: Tenure and Married Women Teachers at the Brink of the Women’s Movement." History of Education Quarterly 42, no. 1 (2002): 50-74.

Texas

Bellows, M. Elizabeth, Michelle Bauml and Sherry L. Field. "Elementary Schools, Teaching, and Social Studies in Texas." American Educational History Journal 40, no. 1/2 (2013): 261-278.

Washington

Champlin, Ardath I. "Arthur L. Marsh and the Washington Education Association, 1921-40." The Pacific Northwest Quarterly 60, no. 3 (1969): 127-134.

Kink, Steve. Class Wars: The Story of the Washington Education Association 1965-2001, Edited by John Cahill. Federal Way, WA: Washington Education Association, 2004.

Wisconsin

Hellwig, Jason F. "Big Labor in a Small Town: The Hortonville Teachers’ Strike." Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin’s Historical Review 19, no. 2 (2003): 10.

Canada

Ewen, Geoffrey. "Montreal Catholic School Teachers, International Unions, and Archbishop Bruchesi: The Association De Bien-Etre Des Instituteurs Et Institutrices De Montreal, 1919-20." Historical Studies in Education 12, no. 1 (2000): 54-72.

MacLeod, Roderick and Mary Anne Poutanen. "Little Fists for Social Justice: Anti-Semitism, Community, and Montréal’s Aberdeen School Strike, 1913." Labour / Le Travail 70,  (2012): 61-99.

Roy, Patricia E. "The Maillardville, B.C. School Strike: Archbishop W.M. Duke, Catholic Schools, and the British Columbia Election of 1952." Historical Studies 80,  (2014): 63-88.

Slinn, Sara. "Structuring Reality So That the Law Will Follow: British Columbia Teachers’ Quest for Collective Bargaining Rights." Labour / Le Travail 68,  (2011): 35-77.

Smaller, Harry and Andrew Spaull. "The Responses of Canadian Teachers’ Unions to the Effects of the 1930s Depression with Emphasis on Ontario." History of Education Review 23, no. 2 (1994): 55-72.

Wallace, D. G. "Social Justice and the Catholic School Teachers’ Association: A Historical Perspective of the CSTA in British Columbia." Historical Studies in Education 5, no. 1 (1993): 55-65.